The E. Coli use their flagella to move around. E. coli have multiple helical/ whip-like structures called flagella. Each one of this flagellum has the ability to rotate clockwise and counterclockwise. For instance, when the E. coli want to move forward, their flagella rotate in a bundle structure. E. coli have multiple flagella that rotate in bundles. Interestingly, the E. coli can sense any chemical changes in its environment and react in either moving away or moving towards. This process is known as chemotaxis; “movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus” (The Free Dictionary).
Moreover, if there are any changes in osmolarity or temperature, the E. coli’s porins change in diameter in order to capture the nutrient molecule. Depending on the size of the nutrient molecule, the diameter of the porins change in size; either increasing or decreasing in size.