Although an E. Coli’s environment is changing constantly, it is suited in an environment that has a temperature of 37 degrees celcius and a pH of approximately 7. E. Coli are capable in sensing any changes that occur in temperature, osmolarity, chemicals and pH. The main two factors that have allowed E. Coli to adapt are: mutations and selective advantages.
The E. Coli use their flagella to move around. Interestingly, the E. Coli can sense any chemical changes in its environment and react in either moving away or moving towards. This process is known as chemotaxis; “movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus” (The Free Dictionary). This type of adaptation is very handy in the bacteria’s competition for food.
Moreover, if there are any changes in osmolarity or temperature, the E. Coli’s porins change in diameter in order to capture the nutrient molecule. Depending on the size of the nutrient molecule, the diameter of the porins change in size; either increasing or decreasing in size.