Faecally contaminated environments- environments including mud, sediment, and water.
Gastrointestinal tract- the GI tract is composed of a muscular tube going down the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestines to the rectum and anus.
Gram-negative bacteria- "are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet dye in the Gram stain protocol. Gram-negative bacteria will thus appear red or pink following a Gram stain procedure due to the effects of the counterstain" (Horizonpress).
Lipopolysaccharides- these molecules are large in size and contain polysaccharide and lipid.
Anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli- "are common elements of the mucous membrane flora throughout the body; they often act as secondary pathogens. They are the most common anaerobes involved in infection and include some of the most antibiotic-resistant species." (Finegold)
Peritrichous flagella- are structures in which the whole surface contains flagella.
Osmolarity- the amount of solute concentration in a solution.
Porin- this is a type of protein that permits only certain particles to pass the plasma membrane.
Pyruvate- comes from pyruvate acid, in which plays a major role in sugar metabolism.
Acetyl- a functional group composed of acetic acid.
ATP- a compound that contains three phosphate groups and adenosine.
Fermentation- known as an anaerobic cellular process where organic material is changes into simpler compounds.
Elongation- a section in protein synthesis, where amino acids are added to the polypeptide chain.
Sex pili- sex pili are pores that permit the transfer of DNA amongst bacteria during reproduction (asexual reproduction).
Nasopharynx- the nasopharynx is located behind the nose and is considered to be part of the pharynx. The air that humans inhale passes the nasopharynx as it’s going towards the trachea.
Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas- is a pathway which permits the metabolic usage of glucose to create ATP and pyruvate.
Tricarboxylic acid- is an organic carboxylic acid that consists of three acid groups.
Biosynthesis- the process of producing chemical compounds from simpler precursors in organisms.